Analytical methods refer to the techniques used for the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of chemical compounds.
Spectrometry is related to instrumentation and measurements for spectrometric studies. An important spectrometry technique is mass spectrometry, which makes it possible to detect and identify molecules according to their mass, particularly useful in proteomics.
Isotopic analysis is based on the measurement of the mass of molecules and provides a spectrum that can lead to the identification of molecules present in a sample. NMR is the most widely used technique for studying the structure of molecules, the interaction of different molecules and the kinetics and dynamics of these interactions.
Spectroscopy refers to the study of electromagnetic radiation absorbed, emitted or scattered by matter. The spectroscopic data obtained are represented by a spectrum. Spectroscopic techniques include FTIR, which allows, among other things, the analysis of the secondary structure of proteins or the measurement of the stability of the secondary structure of a molecule.
Chromatography is a method that separates the components of a mixture according to different characteristics such as the size of the compound or its affinity for a ligand. It can be more or less resolutive.
Separative methods allow the separation of compounds of various kinds present in a sample according to, for example, their mass, charge or density. These include electrophoresis and centrifugation.
Absorption and atomic emission
The analysis of absorption and atomic emission can be performed by an impurity and heavy metal assay that can be performed by mass spectrometry or atomic absorption.
Calorimetric studies are based on thermodynamic measurements that analyze temperature variations during compound transformations. Differential scanning calorimetry, for example, is used to study the reaction of polymers when they are heated.
The Surface Plasma Resonance Technique (SPR) is a very powerful technique that allows the characterization of interactions between two molecules. The molecules studied may be compounds, peptides, antibodies or lipids.
A biosensor is an analytical instrument used for the detection of analytes that combines a biological component, such as an antibody or nucleic acid, and a physicochemical detector.
The analysis of environmental samples allows the detection of many compounds such as pesticides, volatile organic compounds, or aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also possible to study the efficacy of these compounds through multiple types of assays.
Physico-chemical measurements allow the characterization of a sample. Depending on the molecules of interest, different methods can be used.