Analytical methods focus on the determination of known and unknown compounds present in a given sample. Analytics uses state-of-the-art techniques requiring expensive instrumentation. The analyses can be qualitative or quantitative.
Analytical chemistry methods include mass spectrometry, NMR or Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. These are used to study different molecules.
NMR is used in metabolomics. Metabolic data of a sample can be obtained by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The results make it possible to carry out either a qualitative or quantitative study, to identify new metabolites, or determine the structure of a metabolite.
NMR is also used to study the structure of molecules, the interaction of different molecules, the kinetics and dynamics of these interactions, sample composition and quantitative analysis of small molecules.
NMR also allows for natural isotopic analysis. This analysis is used to verify the authenticity of a liquid or aromatic compound.
Some techniques are constituted by combining two components : spectrometry and chromatography. Among these techniques Maldi-ToF, which allows the identification of macromolecules in a sample by looking at the mass imprint. This method is particularly recommended in cases of a limited number of macromolecular types are present in the sample.
LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) is then used, which is very sensitive and particularly suitable for the identification of proteins in a complex sample. LC/MS also allows the detection of post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and phosphorylation, phosphorylation can also be studied by phosphoproteomics.
You also have the possibility to carry out an amino acid analysis, which requires a first hydrolysis step followed by an amino acid separation by HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography), then detection and analysis.
Labtoo also offers GC/MS analyses, this technique allows the separation of molecules in the gas phase before being analysed by mass spectrometry. The molecules studied may be of plant origin such as pesticides or volatile organic compounds. GC/MS also allows quantitative study using mass spectrometry.
FTIR or Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy is a technique very sensitive to structural changes. It is used to predict the alpha helix and beta sheet composition of protein samples. It also allows to compare biosimilar candidates with the original molecule, to measure the protein/lipid ratio of a sample, to carry out stability and stress studies on the structure of molecules. Several critical parameters can be analysed: their three-dimensional structure, their glycosylation profile, etc
There is an alternative to chromatographic techniques: capillary electrophoresis, which allows the separation of compounds of various natures in capillaries, most often fused silica under an electric field due to their differences in mobility.
A biosensor is an analytical instrument used for analyte detection, which combines a biological component and a physicochemical detector. On Labtoo, you can request a theoretical feasibility study, the first step in creating a biosensor.