Cell culture refers to a set of techniques used in biology to grow cells outside their original environment. This is typically used for scientific experiments.
Bioassays or in vitro tests are performed in cell culture. These tests make it possible to study biological functions and phenomenon independently: each type of test is made for studying specific a function or mechanism. This typically applies to cell migration, viability or immune response, and can be adapted to unique projects.
In-vitro tests on cells in culture can sometimes have limitations because the experimental conditions are not representative enough of physiological conditions. In-vivo tests on animal models are more complex to implement and are often expensive. This is why ex-vivo tests, i.e. on human tissue explants, are a way to test compounds on a model closer to physiological reality.
Cell lines are cultivable cells from a single cell, such as tumors, pluripotent cells, or cells taken from an organism and immortalized. These cells can be used to create models that will be representative of diseases or biological functions, they can be reprogrammed into pluripotent cells, or used to express recombinant RNAs and proteins.
Primary cells are isolated directly from the tissues of living organisms and are thus used as models of physiological state in vivo. A primary culture is not immortal and therefore undergoes the phenomenon of senescence (aging of cells). To maintain these cells, certain culture conditions must be respected.
Organelles are cellular components such as the cell nucleus, mitochondria or ribosomes. The isolation of these compounds is sometimes necessary for their study. For this purpose, several techniques are possible, such as gradient density separation (centrifugation) or affinity purification (chromatography).