Genomics is the science that studies the genome of living things. Genome studies allow mapping, studying genes and their functions, including the identification of genes responsible for diseases.
Genome sequencing refers to the determination of the complete DNA sequence of an organism, including chromosomal, mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA, if applicable. Several DNA sequencing methods are possible, such as the sanger method for a short genomic sequence, or NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) for more complex sequencing tasks, including high coverage needs and single cell sequencing.
The transcriptome of an organism refers to all the RNAs resulting from the transcription of the genome. RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing) uses high throughput sequencing to identify and quantify RNA from genome transcription at a given time.
Metagenomics refers to the genomic study of samples taken from a complex environment. This study technique makes it possible to highlight the diversity of microbial ecosystems, whether they are found in marine environments, under the ground or even in our intestines.
Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms that reversibly modify genetic information. These changes are induced by the cellular environment, whose signals lead to the regulation of genes by different molecules. This is particularly interesting in the study of the development of diseases that can be caused by epigenetic abnormalities.
Genetic information is not expressed in the same way over the life of an organism. Indeed, genes can be made active or inactive according to needs, this is the principle of genetic expression. This expression can be quantified using different techniques that often require a step of amplification of a DNA fragment by PCR (Polymerization Chain Reaction).
The genotype is the total allelic composition of all genes in an organism and is responsible for its physical characteristics (phenotype). Genotyping is the analysis of an individual's genetic information by comparing a DNA sequence with a reference sequence to identify the differences between the two sequences.
Molecular cloning is made by the insertion of new genes into an organism’s genome so that they can be expressed. Typically, the DNA sequence of interest and the plasmid are linked so that the genomic zone of interest is integrated into the plasmid vector. To be transformed, the host cell must be made competent and will integrate the plasmid into its genome.
Genome editing is a technique that allows genetic modifications to be made in any type of cell (animal, plant, microbial, etc.). It allows the development of customized cellular models, for instance for studying the cellular functions and the development of living organisms. One of the most widely used method is CRISPR-Cas9, which has revolutionized genome edition through its simplicity and affordability.
The study of the genome requires the preparation of genetic samples. This requires nucleic acid extraction and purification.