Infectious diseases biological samples and experimental services

What are infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by germs (such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi) that enter the body, multiply, and can cause an infection. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the body. Symptoms of an infectious disease depend on the type of pathogen and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, fatigue, cough, headache, muscle aches, and rash. Some infectious diseases can be treated with antibiotics, antivirals, or other medications, while others may require supportive care to manage symptoms until the body's immune system can clear the infection.

Some infectious diseases can be prevented through vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Early detection and treatment of infectious diseases is important to prevent the spread of the disease to others and to prevent serious complications from developing.

What types of samples are used in infectious disease research?

In infectious disorder research, various types of samples can be collected and analyzed to understand the underlying causes and mechanisms of the disease, as well as to develop and evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Some of the most common types of samples used in infectious disease research include:

Urine samples

Urine samples can be used to detect certain bacterial or viral infections, as well as to monitor kidney function.

Blood samples

Blood samples can be used to measure levels of cytokines, antibodies, or other biomarkers that indicate an infection or the body's immune response.

Sputum samples

Sputum samples can be collected to identify the presence of bacteria or other pathogens in the respiratory tract.

Stool samples

Stool samples are commonly collected to detect gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites.

Tissue samples

Tissue samples, such as skin or biopsy specimens, can be collected to diagnose infections or to examine the effects of the infection on the body's tissues.


Blood samples

Blood samples can be used to measure levels of cytokines, antibodies, or other biomarkers that indicate an infection or the body's immune response.


Nasopharyngeal swabs

A nasopharyngeal swab involves collecting a sample of mucus or secretions from the back of the nose and throat. This sample can be used to detect respiratory viruses, such as COVID-19.

These samples are typically analyzed in the laboratory using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, serology, or microscopy. The results of these tests can help diagnose the infectious disease, monitor the disease progression, and guide the selection of appropriate treatment options.

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Available types of infectious diseases biological samples

  • Tissues
    • Fresh tissues
    • Frozen tissues (OCT and FF)
    • FFPE tissues
    • Healthy tissues
  • Blood derivatives
    • Whole blood
    • PBMC
    • Plasma
    • Serum
    • Leukapheresis
  • Biofluids
    • Urine
    • Stool/Feces
    • Saliva
    • Sputum
    • Respiratory swabs
Our service identifies sample sources able to prepare and transfer a sample collection for any given project. Just ask our team to discuss your project!

Types of Collections

  • Retrospective: we can look into existing biobank collections 
  • Prospective: we can set up clinical collection specific to a given project

Experimental models used in infectious disease R&D

Experimental models are crucial in infectious disease research and development (R&D) for understanding the biology of pathogens, testing new therapies, and developing vaccines. Some commonly used experimental models in infectious disease R&D include:

Cell culture: This involves growing pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens in laboratory cultures of cells, which can be used to study the pathogen's life cycle and the host response.

In vivo models: Animals, such as mice or rabbits, can be infected with a pathogen to study its natural history, host response, and the efficacy of new therapies.

Non-human primate models:  Non-human primates, such as monkeys, can be used as experimental models for some infectious diseases, especially for those that are more similar to human infections.

In vitro models: These models use human or animal cells or tissues in a laboratory setting to study the host response to infection or the effects of new treatments.

Human challenge studies:  These are controlled studies where volunteers are intentionally infected with a pathogen to study the natural history of the disease and to test the efficacy of new treatments or vaccines.

Each experimental model has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of model will depend on the specific research questions and the type of pathogen being studied. Experimental models are essential tools for advancing our understanding of infectious diseases and for developing new and effective interventions.

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Typical deliverables

  • Feasibility of availability of samples or experimental services
  • Regulatory aspects (transfer authorizations, export authorizations, ethics committee agreement)
  • Contracting
  • Samples shipment in appropriate conditions
  • Clinical data or results
  • Other services (i.e. Nucleic acid extraction, quality control)


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Get started with your infectious diseases research request

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Our team will handle your endocrine disorders R&D procurement from the beginning to the end

Perform a feasibility study by looking for existing samples already in collections & ready to be transferred

Set up a clinical biological collection and preparing contracts with sources

Assist the material transfer from the source to the lab, including treatments, QA or shipping, as needed

Some examples of infectious diseases

Infectious diseases can be broadly categorized into several main categories, based on the type of pathogen that causes the disease: bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, and streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), viral infections, such as the flu, the common cold, and COVID-19, fungal infections, such as candidiasis and aspergillosis, parasitic infections malaria and leishmaniasis, prion diseases, as rare, degenerative, and usually fatal brain diseases caused by abnormal proteins, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Infectious diseases can also be categorized by the mean of infection, like sexually transmitted infections (STIs), that are spread through sexual contacts, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. It's important to note that some infectious diseases can overlap categories, as the same pathogen can cause different types of infections. For example, some bacteria can cause both respiratory and sexually transmitted infections. 
Pneumonia is a type of respiratory infection that affects the lungs. It's caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In pneumonia, the air sacs in the lungs become inflamed and filled with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe and to get enough oxygen into the bloodstream. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including a cough, chest pain, fever, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to serious complications, such as lung abscesses, respiratory failure, and sepsis.
Malaria is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The parasites multiply in the human host and cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain. In severe cases, malaria can cause anemia, seizures, kidney failure, and death. Malaria is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The disease affects millions of people each year and is a leading cause of death and illness in many developing countries. Treatment for malaria depends on the type of parasite causing the infection and the severity of the disease. Antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), are commonly used to treat malaria.